Introduction. A subject and tasks of biochemistry. Physical and
chemical bases of biochemical processes. Structure of proteins.
Structural organization and properties of proteins Interaction of
proteins with ligands as a basis of functioning of proteins. The active
center. Interrelation of structure and function proteins.
Enzymes. A biological role. The mechanism and features catalytic
efficiency of enzymes. Cofactors and соenzymes.
Biological oxidation. Mitochondrial electron transport chain. ATPsyntase.
Regulation of oxidative phosphorylation. Disorders of
mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.
Carbohydrates: structure, biological role, classification. Digestion
and absorption of food carbohydrates. Synthesis and catabolism of
glycogen. Regulation of glucose storage and mobilization.
Glycolysis. Gluconeogenesis. Fermentation. Pentose phosphate
pathway. Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism.
Lipids: structure, biorole, classification. Digestion of lipids and
absorption of products of digestion in the gastrointestinal tract.
Transport of lipids, lipoproteins. Storage and mobilization of fats in
adipose tissue. Regulation.
β-oxidation of fatty acids. Oxidative degradation of glycerol.
Biosynthesis of fatty acids. Regulation. Synthesis of triacylglycerols
Biological membranes: structure, biological role. GENDER. Maintaining the structural and functional integrity of the membranes. Membrane protein. Mechanisms of transmembrane transport of substances. Mechanisms for transmitting hormonal signals to cells.
Amino acids: structure, biological role. Diagram of the ways of formation and decomposition of amino acids. Direct and indirect deamination. Types of direct deamination. Synthesis and breakdown of glutamine. Transamination of amino acids.