MAIN TOPICS

  • UNIT 14. CHEMISTRY OF LIPIDS. DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION OF LIPIDS. LIPOPROTEINS

    Test in written form: the structural formulae and biological role of:

    1)      saturated fatty acids (C4-C20), unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic acid). Indicate with the help of digital symbols the position and amount of double bonds in unsaturated fatty acids;

    2)      mono-, di-, triacylglycerols;

    3)      phosphoacylglycerols (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol);

    4)      ceramide and  sphingolipids (sphingomyelin, galactocerebroside, ganglioside);

    5)      cholesterol and cholesterol esters;

    6)      bile acids and taurine-, glycoconjugates of bile salts.

     

    Main topics:

    ·         Features of  structure and biological role of fatty acids in the human.

    ·         Triacylglycerols and phosphoacylglycerols: features of their structure and properties.

    ·         Physiological norms of daily lipid intake. The essential components of dietary lipids for the human organism.

    ·         Digestion of dietary fats as hydrolysis of fats under the action of lipase, necessary conditions.

    -   Digestion of phosphoacylglycerols.

    -   Structure and biological role of bile acids and their taurine-, and glycoconjugates.

    -   Infringements of digestion and absorption of lipids. Steatorrhoea.

    ·         Triacylglycerol resynthesis in intestinal epithelial cells.

    ·         Synthesis of chylomicrons and transport of fats.

    ·         Classification of lipoproteins by their density, electrophoretic mobility, functions.

    -   Structure of blood lipoprotein

    -   The place of lipoprotein formation, features of lipid structure of various LP; apolipoproteins, their functions.

    -   Dyslipoproteinemia. Hyperchylomicronemia. Hypercholesterolemia.

    ·         Lecithin hydrolysis and analysis of hydrolysis products.

    ·         Qualitative reaction for cholesterol (Liebermann-Burchard test).

     

    Memorize the definition:

    Lipids are a heterogeneous group of compounds, insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as ether, chloroform.

    Lipids are classified according to the structure (see lecture). Lipids functions:

    -       an efficient source of energy (fatty acids, triacylglycerols),

    -       the best reserve food material in the human body (fats),

    -       an insulator against the loss of body heat (fats),

    -       protective coating on the surface of many organs such as kidney, against injury (fats),

    -       structural components of cell membranes (phosphoacylglycerols, sphingolipids, cholesterol,

    -       biologically active compounds (steroid hormones, eicosanoids),

    -       they facilitate the absorption of the fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, K (bile salts).


Last modified: Thursday, 19 November 2020, 10:57 AM